& Prakfira and other Buildings and Mahadvani, Conservation noto .. P2 Pillars, Ceilings, Navarahga Shrines, Images in the Navarang.i ... U Sukhanasi, (iarhliagi ilia, Panchalinge M'cira shrinos, Other Building^, M-ilifulvaru, Conservation noto ... The custom of seating the goddess consort on the lap of the god appears to be an ancient convention surviving from some remote period to the present day. The higher classes, the gods, kings and queens wore long hair tied in large knots behind the head or on one side as among the Tamil and Telugu women to-day. Whatever may have been the source of the supply of gold to Vijayanagar, there appear to have been issued a very large number of gold and copper coins. Very often the god has a large knot of hair or kirita behind his head after the mediaeval fashion. Vi ra Bu ka pa tl ra ya Hultzch reads the legend as ' &ri Vira Bhupati raya.' But it is difficult to deny the existence of the letter ' ka ' in the second line. Till his elder brother's death in 1353, Bukka was content to bo only the heir ; and when he occupied the 1 There are several specimens in the British Museum. The Nagari legend on the variety b\ has been read by Hultzch " Sri Vlra Bhupati lifiya," the * ti ' being sometimes wrongly long ; he attributes it to a prince who was the son of "Bukkall 2 . 1 The sun and moon appearing together are the eternal witnesses of the king's deeds or, more probably, the indicators of the eternal duration of the Empire or the circulation of the coins.
Fortunately, both gold and copper specimens have been known, and indicate that Vijayanagar was a sovereign State and that there was a varied currency used in the kingdom about the year 1350. 2 In all probability, this State acknowledged the suzerainty of Vijayanagar and played an important part in the hitter's foreign affairs. 383 mentions the common enmity of Kherla and Vijayanagar to the Bahamanis. The coins of Harihara and his successors throw some light on the archaic dress and ornaments which were worn by deities and by kings on ceremonial occasions. (Vi) ja ya Bu ka Ea ya Specimen in the Cambridge Museum. But the obverse of the coin with the dagger and no conch and the reverse without any dagger in the centre make the coin resemble the bull type of Harihara II more than the bull types of Devaraya 1.
The foundation of Vijayanagar, also called Vidyiinagara, is traditionally but incorrectly ascribed to Guru Vidyaranya who is said to have caused gold coins to pour down from heaven. The tail is clearly seen 2 to form an arch over the head and curl up in front. He was famous even in contemporary times as a military genius. The variety with the Kannada legend is undoubtedly his issue. The bull and dagger type is copied from a similar Chola type suggesting thereby that it might have been issued after the Chola country had become an integral part of the Empire.
Of these, the temple of Lakshminarasiiiiha and the damaged image )f Yoganarayana near it are all that remain. The temple has been studied in detail under the following heads : I. This he called the ( Karnataka ' kingdom owing to the spoken language of the people being Kannada. 6, but the legend reads : Sri Bu ka pa ra ya Bukka I was the hero, who more than anybody else, was responsible for the establishment ot the kingdom of Vijayanagar. His coins are very similar to those of Harihara I, though they show a little more care in die cutting. The Indian humped bull with long horns walking majestically with uplifted head has been a figure admired in Indian art and literature. The bull and crescent appear commonly on the Andhra and Choja coins, while the dagger, also present on the Chola and Chalukya issues, is a symbol of royalty.
There are two specimens in 1 Mysore Catalogue Draft : Vijayanagar, No. The head-dress consisted of kirltas or peaked caps more often of metal than of cloth, inlaid with precious stones and rising in ridges tier above tier.
The Nagari legend variety with the bordering dots and circle would appear to be later in date than the Kannada legend variety which is distinctly ruder. A remarkable feature of some of the coins of Harihara II and a few of his successors like Devaraya II is the evidence of milling. Krishna liaya's statue with his consorts in the temple at Tirupati 1 wears very nearly the same kind of dress. " This king was perhaps called Vijaya Bukka also, in which case the application to him of the name ' Ajarao ' by Nuniz 1 would be explained.